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Fabian Society The Fabian Society was founded in London, England on 4 January 1884 as an offshoot of The Fellowship of the New Life, a society founded a year earlier.  Early Fellowship members included the visionary Victorian elite who wanted to transform society by setting an example of clean simplified living for others to follow.  Some members also wanted to become politically involved to aid society's transformation, so they set up a separate society, the Fabian Society, a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.  All members were free to attend both societies. The Fabian Society additionally advocated renewal of Western European Renaissance ideas and their promulgation throughout the world.

The Fellowship of the New Life was dissolved in 1899, but the Fabian Society grew to become the pre-eminent academic society in the United Kingdom in the Edwardian era.  Public meetings of the society were originally held at Essex Hall, a popular location just off the Strand in central London.

According to the author Jon B. Perdue, "The logo of the Fabian Society, a tortoise, represented the group’s predilection for a slow, imperceptible transition to socialism, while its coat of arms, a 'wolf in sheep’s clothing', represented its preferred methodology for achieving its goal."  The wolf in sheep's clothing symbolism was later abandoned, due to its obvious negative connotations.

Its nine founding members were Frank Podmore, Edward R. Pease, William Clarke, Hubert Bland, Percival Chubb, Frederick Keddell, H. H. Champion, Edith Nesbit, and Rosamund Dale Owen.  Havelock Ellis is sometimes mentioned as a tenth founding member but there is some question about this.

As one of the founding organisations of the Labour Representation Committee in 1900, and as an important influence upon the Labour Party which grew from it, the Fabian Society has had a powerful influence on British politics.  Other members of the Fabian Society have included political leaders from countries formerly part of the British Empire, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, who adopted Fabian principles, as part of their own political ideologies.  The Fabian Society founded the London School of Economics and Political Science in 1895.

Today, the society functions primarily as a think tank and is one of 15 socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party.  Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), in Canada (the Douglas–Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction), in Sicily (Sicilian Fabian Society) and in New Zealand (The NZ Fabian Society).




Faerie Star See Elven Star.



Faravahar / Asho Farohar See Zoroastrianism.



Fasces The word 'fasces' is derived from the Roman word meaning 'bundle'.  The fasces itself is an axe or pointed weapon surrounded by bundled rods of wood -- usually elm.  Its original use and true meaning is lost, although it probably originated as a phallic emblem.

In ancient Rome the fasces was once a symbol of authority, most often associated with magistrates.  Bundles of rods without a weapon were called bacilli, the emblem of the duumviri (magistrates without the power to pass a sentence of death).  It is thought that the bundled rods represented the unified people while the axe stood for authority and power, especially over death.

The fasces frequently denoted a symbol of government, unity, and order, and has remained a popular heraldic emblem.  It was even adopted as an emblem by Benito Mussolini's1 (1883 - 1945) Fascist party during WWII, and is the origin of the word 'fascist'.  Today it is more likely to be used by neo-fascist groups than normative governments.

On early American coins and other symbols, the fasces symbolised the unity of the colonies -- strength in numbers (a single stick may be broken, but a number of sticks bound together are invincible).

1 Italian dictator Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (1883-1945) rose to power in the wake of World War I as a leading proponent of Fascism.  Originally a revolutionary Socialist, he forged the paramilitary Fascist movement in 1919 and became prime minister in 1922.  Known as Il Duce (the leader) Mussolini's military expenditures in Libya, Somalia, Ethiopia and Albania made Italy predominant in the Mediterranean region, though they exhausted his armed forces by the late 1930s.  Mussolini allied himself with Hitler, relying on the German dictator to prop up his leadership during World War II, but he was killed shortly after the German surrender in Italy in 1945.




Faun See Satyr.



Faunus In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus was the Horned God of the forest, plains and fields.  He was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the 'di indigetes'2.  According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins who came with his people from Arcadia.

His shade was consulted as a god of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself.  Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse.  Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs.

With the increasing Hellenisation of literate upper class Roman culture in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, the Romans tried to equate their own deities with those of the Greeks, so Faunus was naturally equated with the god Pan, a pastoral god of shepherds who was said to reside in Arcadia.

Pan had always been depicted with horns, so because of this many depictions of Faunus also began to display this trait.  However, the two deities were also considered separate by many -- in particular Virgil, in his Aeneid, made mention of both Faunus and Pan independently.

2 In Georg Wissowa's terminology, the di indigetes or indigites were Roman deities not adopted from other religions.




Fede Ring See Claddagh.



Federation of Damanhur See Damanhur.



Fédération Universelle des Ordres et Sociétés Initiatiques (FUDOSI) FUDOSI or FUDOESI (Fédération Universelle des Ordres et Sociétés Initiatiques) was a federation of autonomous esoteric or mystical orders and societies, founded on 14 August 1934 CE, in Brussels (Belgium).  It was disbanded in 1951 and was opposed by FUDOFSI.

FUDOSI was an attempt to create a federation of mystical orders with the mission "to protect the sacred liturgies, rites and doctrines of the traditional initiatory Orders from being appropriated and profaned by clandestine organizations."  One of its leading founders was the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC), a document of which describes the nature of FUDOSI as follows:

"Some persons, whose minds have not as yet received sufficient light, have been wondering why it was necessary to gather in a Universal Federation the Initiatique Orders and Societies, which, in their own field of work, enjoy the most absolute and complete freedom and perfect autonomy and independence. ' To this query we may reply that, more than in anything else, it is the initiatique work that the greatest vigilance is indispensable and that a strict and active international discipline must be exercised.  We must acknowledge and regret, that there exist many false prophets and a number of so-called initiates who use, for selfish and tyrannical purposes of domination, the pretext of initiation to thrust themselves on, and exploit, gullible and sincere persons.  It was high time to warn the public against these false leaders and against noxious doctrines which they taught to trusting souls.  In each country, each authentic and regular Order knows its imitators and such false prophets.  It was necessary to watch these clandestine movements, to expose these impostors or instruments of hidden and unavowed forces, in all countries, wherever they be operating, and thus avoid any confusion between the regular and authentic Orders and false Organisations that are harmful or that give teachings that have nothing to do with the Universal Tradition and Esoterism.  And also, it was necessary that the authentic Orders be careful in selecting their members and their officers and in maintaining their adepts and students on the right path of the true doctrines, obliging them to follow a strict line of discipline, rational, sincere and conscientious work, so as to avoid radical teachings and heterodoxy.  This immense work which was intended to protect the Orders against their inner and outer enemies has been successfully carried on by the FUDOSI, and is now going on."




Fédération Universelle des Ordres, Fraternités et Sociétés Initiatiques (FUDOFSI) FUDOFSI (Fédération Universelle des Ordres, Fraternités et Sociétés Initiatiques), headed by Constant Chevillon (1880 - 1944 CE), was a federation of independent esoteric orders similar to FUDOSI, but strongly opposed to the other group.  The first meeting of FUDOFSI took place in Paris in February 1939.

FUDOFSI was established in defence of the Orders of Lyon and other societies that were not involved with FUDOSI.  FUDOFSI was strongly opposed to FUDOSI, Harvey Spencer Lewis and his organisation Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (AMORC).  Very little information is known about FUDOFSI since neither the organisation nor its leader survived the Second World War (in 1944, Constant Chevillon, the head of FUDOFSI, was murdered by the Gestapo).

FUDOFSI ceased to exist at some point during World War II.  However, in 1947 some of its members contacted each other and tried to establish a new organisation.  Hans-Rudolf Hilfiker and R Swinburne Clymer (1878 - 1966) tried to create a Worldwide Alliance of Rosicrucian Orders.  In Rio de Janeiro, Clymer successfully merged his organisation with Krumm-Heller's.  Hilfiker and Clymer had a meeting on 7 May 1947 and also on 5 June 1948, in Zürich, Switzerland at the hotel Baur au Lac.  The Fraternitas Rosae Crucis official biography of Emerson Myron Clymer, son of R S Clymer, describes him as Supreme Grand Master of FUDOFSI after his father's death, so it is possible that the Fraternitas Rosae Crucis considers FUDOFSI to have survived later.




Fellowship of Isis The Fellowship of Isis (FOI) was founded at the Vernal Equinox of 1976 CE at Huntington Castle (also known as Clonegal Castle), Co. Carlow, Republic of Ireland.  There were three co-founders, Olivia Robertson (1917 - 2013), her brother, Lawrence Durdin-Robertson (1920 - 1994) and Lawrence's wife Pamela (1923 - 1987) whose aim was to create a Fellowship to ‘help the Goddess actively in the manifestation of Her divine plan’.  Olivia described Isis as ‘God in female form’.

The fellowship developed from a working group created in 1963 called the Huntington Castle Centre for Meditation and Study.  This Centre was active in gathering together various occult and theological figures such as Ross Nichols, Josephine and Mohun Lall, and Gerald Gough.  The experiences shared within this group led to the eventual founding of the Fellowship of Isis after which the group steadily grew until the early 1990s.  It is now a globally organised religion whose international and internet presence is very large in comparison with its Irish base.

In August 1993, the FOI was represented at the Parliament of the World's Religions at Chicago by Olivia Robertson and other member delegates.  It was the first time that the Religion of the Goddess had been acknowledged as a world faith at this Parliament.  The Parliament became a showcase for the new religions in America, especially since mainstream Christianity was much under represented.

Custodianship of the FOI Foundation Centre is now under the aegis of the Durdin-Robertsons, heirs of the co-founders.  In 2011, Olivia Robertson named her niece, Cressida Pryor, successor and FOI steward.  In October 2014, Cressida announced the Irish-based Circle of Brigid the ‘central parliament’ and ‘executive board’ of the FOI Foundation Centre, of which she is overall adviser.  The Circle of Brigid is also responsible for festivals at the Castle Centre in Ireland and has a sub-committee to deal with ethics grievances.




Fenrir In Norse mythology, Fenrir (also known by many other names), is a monstrous wolf.  Fenrir is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century CE from earlier traditional sources, and the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson.  In both the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, Fenrir is the father of the wolves Sköll and Hati Hróđvitnisson, and a son of Loki.  It was foretold he would kill the god Odin during the events of Ragnarök, but would in turn be killed by Odin's son Víđarr.

In the Prose Edda, additional information can be found concerning Fenrir, including that, due to the gods' knowledge of prophecies foretelling great trouble from Fenrir and his rapid growth, the gods bound him, as a result of which Fenrir bit off the right hand of the god Týr.  Depictions of Fenrir have been identified on various objects, and scholarly theories have been proposed regarding Fenrir's relation to other canine beings in Norse mythology.  Fenrir has been the subject of many artistic depictions, and he also appears in literature.




Fig Sign See Mano Fico.



Filomez See Veves.



Finnish Mythology Finnish Mythology is a commonly applied description of the folklore of Finnish Paganism, of which a modern revival is practiced by a small percentage of the modern Finnish people.  It has many features shared with fellow Estonian Mythology and its non-Finnish neighbours, the Balts and the Scandinavians.  Some of their myths are also distantly related to the myths of other Finno-Ugric speakers like the Samis3.  Finnish Mythology survived within an oral tradition of mythical poem-singing and folklore well into the 19th century CE.

Although the gradual influence of surrounding cultures raised the significance of the sky god in a monolatristic manner (the recognition of the existence of many gods, but with the consistent worship of only one), the father god 'Ukko' (Old Man) was originally just a nature spirit like all the others.  Of the animals, the most sacred was the bear, whose real name was never uttered out loud lest his kind be unfavourable to the hunting.  The bear was seen as the embodiment of the forefathers, and for this reason it was called by many circumlocutions: mesikämmen ('mead-paw'), otso ('browed one'), kontio ('dweller of the land'), metsän kultaomena ('the golden apple of the forest') but not a god.

3 The Sami people (also Sámi or Saami, traditionally known in English as Lapps or Laplanders) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting the Arctic area of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of far northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.




Fire Fire is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and Western alchemy.  It represents divine energy, purification, revelation, transformation, regeneration, ambition, sexual passion -- in other words, a masculine element symbolising creative and destructive power.

This along with the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's system of magic.  The elemental grade of Philosophus (4=7) is attributed to fire; this grade is also attributed to the Kabbalistic Sephirah Netzach and the planet Venus.  The fire signs in astrology are Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius.

The elemental weapon of fire is the Wand.  Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings.  The archangel of fire is Michael, the angel is Aral, the ruler is Seraph, the king is Djin, and the fire elementals are called Salamanders.  Fire is considered to be active; it is represented in astrology by Leo and is referred to the lower right point of the Pentacle in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentacle.  Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community.  See also Salamanders.




Fisherman's Net See Flower of Life.



Five-fold Cross See Jerusalem Cross.



Five Great Blessings The Five Great Blessings symbol is composed of the Chinese symbol for longevity surrounded by five bats.  The word bat in Chinese is similar to the word for happiness.  Each of the bats represents one of the five blessings which are wealth, health, long life, love of virtue, and peaceful death.  Bats themselves also represent longevity as they were associated with immortals.  This symbol dates back to around 1500 BCE during the Han dynasty.  The first mention of the five great blessings comes in The Book of Documents from China.  This is a powerful symbol and is sometimes used in the architecture of homes to provide a blessing for the family living in them.  The symbol itself represents blessings and longevity.

The five-bat motif is found in many different Chinese symbols.  Another shows the bats encircling a symbol for prosperity.  This is a symbol representing prosperity from a virtuous life.  There is also a symbol of the bats surrounding a round box which symbolises harmony and blessings for a married couple, which is often found on wedding presents to newlyweds.

During the Chinese New Year, the bats are often portrayed on red paper banners in the hope that they will have good fortune in the New Year.  The banners are often hung upside down to increase the possibility of good fortune.  The family members hope that they will have happiness in the new year with prosperity in their jobs.

This symbol is often found on royal robes, wind chimes, lanterns, vases, screens, and Chinese art.  In modern times the symbol is used for tattoos, on belt buckles, in jewellery, keychains, and many household items such as dishes, bowls, and snuff bottles to bring good fortune and blessing into the homes.




Fleur-de-lis / Fleur-de-lys The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys or flower-de-luce is a stylised lily that is used as a decorative design or symbol.  Many of the saints are often depicted with a lily, most prominently St Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus.

Since France is a historically Catholic nation, the Fleur-de-lis became commonly used at one and the same time, 'religious, political, dynastic, artistic, emblematic, and symbolic', particularly in French heraldry.




FLO See Fraternity of the Hidden Light.



Flower of Life The image here is most often called the 'Flower of Life', a symbol most commonly associated with New Age permutations of Sacred Geometry.  It is a curiously universal emblem, appearing in religious contexts all over the globe over the span of several millennia.

The oldest example can still be seen at the ancient Temple of Osiris (the Osirion or Osireon), one of many geometric arrangements of circles found there.  This example, with its multiplicity of Vesica Piscis shapes, may represent the 'eyes' of Osiris -- a symbol of the omniscience of the god.  It can also be seen in early Phoenician, Assyrian, Indian, Asian, Middle Eastern, and later mediaeval art.

This delicate net of overlapping circles arranged in a six-fold pattern is called the 'flower of life' because it contains a number of other shapes within its deceptively simple pattern, leading some to call it the 'blueprint of creation'.  By connecting points in the pattern, a multitude of patterns and shapes can be traced, including a Tree of Life, Pentagram, and various representations of three dimensional objects.  The six-fold 'seed' pattern used as a basis for the larger pattern is often referred to on its own as the seed of life:




Footprint of the Buddha The footprint of the Buddha is an imprint of Gautama Buddha's foot or both feet.  There are two forms; natural, as found in stone or rock, and those made artificially.  Many of the "natural" ones are acknowledged not to be genuine footprints of the Buddha, but rather replicas or representations of them, which can be considered cetiya (Buddhist relics) and also an early aniconic and symbolic representation of the Buddha.

His footprints are meant to remind us that Buddha was present on earth and left a spiritual path to be followed.  They are special as they are the only artifacts that give Buddha a physical presence on earth since they are actual depressions in the earth.  A depression atop Sri padaya in Sri Lanka is among the largest and most famous footprints.

Footprints of the Buddha abound throughout Asia, dating from various periods.  Japanese author Motoji Niwa who spent years tracking down the footprints in many Asian countries, estimates that he found more than 3,000 such footprints, among them about 300 in Japan and more than 1,000 in Sri Lanka.  They often bear distinguishing marks, such as a Dharmachakra at the centre of the sole, or the auspicious signs of the Buddha, engraved or painted on the sole.




Forn Sidr The Forn Siđr -- Ásatrú and Vanatrú Association -- is a Danish nationwide religious organisation of the followers of Forn Siđr (Ásatrú and Vanatrú), the contemporary revival of Norse paganism and culture.  The Forn Siđr association was established on 15 November 1997.

The organisation is non-proselytistic and apolitical.  It was registered as a religious society by the Kirkeministeriet on 6 November 2003.  This has, among other things, given the community the right to celebrate legally valid weddings for its members, and better opportunities for members to be buried under the protection of Heathen rites.  In 2008, the society acquired a burial place in Odense.  See also Asatru Religion.




Fountain A fountain represents the life force, rejuvenation or immortality.  It is also a symbol of the cosmic centre.  Christianity and Islamic tradition place a fountain or spring at the centre of paradise at the foot of the Tree of Life from which streams flow to the four cardinal points.

A fountain is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.  In addition to providing drinking water, fountains were used for decoration and to celebrate their builders.  Roman fountains were decorated with bronze or stone masks of animals or heroes.  In the Middle Ages, Moorish and Muslim garden designers used fountains to create miniature versions of the gardens of paradise.

King Louis XIV of France used fountains in the Gardens of Versailles to illustrate his power over nature.  The baroque decorative fountains of Rome in the 17th and 18th centuries CE marked the arrival point of restored Roman aqueducts and glorified the Popes who built them.

The fountain's 'pure river of water' (Revelation 22:1) was equated with the Father and Son resulting in the fountain becoming a symbol not only of purity but of revelation and redemption.




Four Evangelists A tetramorph is a symbolic arrangement of four differing elements, or the combination of four disparate elements in one unit.  The term is derived from the Greek tetra, meaning four, and morph, shape.  Tetramorphs were four angelic beings drawn from much earlier Babylonian symbolism, described in a vision of the Hebrew Prophet Ezekiel:

“As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle “

The beasts are later described in the Revelation of John: “And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle.”

In Christian art, the tetramorph is the union of the symbols of the Four Evangelists, derived from the four living creatures in the Book of Ezekiel, into a single figure or, more commonly, a group of four figures.  Each of the four Evangelists is associated with one of the living creatures, usually shown with wings.  The most common association, but not the original or only, is: Matthew the man, Mark the lion, Luke the ox, and John the eagle.  In Christian art and iconography, Evangelistic portraits are often accompanied by tetramorphs, or the symbols alone used to represent them.  Evangelistic portraits that depict them in their human forms are often accompanied by their symbolic creatures, and Christ in Majesty is often shown surrounded by the four symbols.

Archaeological evidence exists showing that early man divided the four quarters of the horizon, or space, later a place of sacrifice, such as a temple, and attributed characteristics and spiritual qualities to each quarter.  Alternatively, the composite elements were carved into mythic creatures such as the ancient Egyptian, Greek and Babylonian sphinxes of antiquity depicting bull-like bodies with birds-wings, lion's paws and human faces.  Such composite creatures are found in many mythologies.




Four Hallows See 4 Hallows.



Four-leaf Clover The four-leaf clover is a rare variation of the common three-leaf clover, or Shamrock.  According to traditional superstition, such clovers bring good luck, although it is not clear when, where or how that superstition originated.  The earliest mention of "Fower-leafed or purple grasse" is from 1640 and simply says that it was kept in gardens because it was "good for the purples (cyanosis) in children or others".  A description from 1869 says that four-leaf clovers were "gathered at night-time during the full moon by sorceresses, who mixed them with vervain (a herb that goes by quite a few other common names including Simpler's Joy, Enchanter's Plant, Herb of the Cross, Juno's Tears, Pigeon's Grass, Pigeonweed, Herb of Grace, Wild Hyssop, Iron-weed, Wild Verbena, and Indian Hyssop) and other ingredients, while young girls in search of a token of perfect happiness made quest of the plant by day".  The first reference to luck might be from an 11-year-old girl, who wrote in an 1877 letter to St Nicholas Magazine, "Did the fairies ever whisper in your ear, that a four-leaf clover brought good luck to the finder?"

It is claimed that there are approximately 10,000 three-leaf clovers for every four-leaf clover.  However, an actual survey of over 5 million clovers found the real frequency to be closer to 5,000 to 1.  Even so, this probability has not deterred collectors who have reached records as high as 170,000 four-leaf clovers in a lifetime.

Clovers can have more than four leaves.  Five-leaf clovers are less commonly found naturally than four-leaf clovers; however, they, too, have been successfully cultivated.  Some four-leaf clover collectors, particularly in Ireland, regard the five-leaf clover, known as a rose clover, as a particular prize.  In exceptionally rare cases, clovers are able to grow with six leaves and more in nature.  The most leaves ever found on a single clover stem is 56, discovered by Shigeo Obara of Hanamaki City, Iwate, Japan, on 10 May 2009.




Four Noble Truths of Buddhism In Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths are 'the truths of the Noble Ones', the truths or realities for the 'spiritually worthy ones'.  The 4 truths are:
  • dukkha (suffering, incapable of satisfying, painful) is an innate characteristic of existence with each rebirth
  • samudaya (origin, cause) of this dukkha is the 'craving, desire or attachment'
  • nirodha (cessation, ending) of this dukkha can be attained by eliminating all 'craving, desire, and attachment'
  • his marga (path, Noble Eightfold Path) is the means to end this dukkha
They are traditionally identified as the first teaching given by the Buddha and considered one of the most important teachings in Buddhism.

The four truths appear in many grammatical forms in the ancient Buddhist texts, and have both a symbolic and a propositional function.  Symbolically, they represent the awakening and liberation of the Buddha, and of the potential for his followers to reach the same religious experience as him.  As propositions, the Four Truths are a conceptual framework that appear in the Pali canon and early Hybrid Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures.  They are a part of the broader 'network of teachings', (the 'dhamma matrix') which have to be taken together.nbsp; They provide a conceptual framework for introducing and explaining Buddhist thought, which has to be personally understood or 'experienced'.




Fraternitas Rosae Crucis (FRC) Fraternitas Rosae Crucis (Fraternity of the Rosy Cross or FRC) is a Rosicrucian fraternal organisation founded by Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825 - 1875) in 1858 CE; it is the oldest Rosicrucian Order in the United States of America.  The organisation also operates Beverly Hall corporation and the Clymer Health Centre in nearby Quakertown, Pennsylvania.  It claims to be the 'authentic Rosicrucian Fraternity' that was first instituted in Germany in 1614.

The FRC's first lodge was established in San Francisco in 1861, but it closed soon after.  In 1871, another lodge was established in Boston, then in 1874, it was re-established in San Francisco.  A year later, in 1875 the FRC finally settled in Philadelphia.




Fraternitas Saturni Fraternitas Saturni (Brotherhood of Saturn) is a German magical order, founded in 1926 CE by Eugen Grosche (1888 - 1964) -- also known as Gregor A Gregorius -- and four others.  It is reputed to be one of the oldest continuously running magical groups in Germany.  As Gregorius states, "The Lodge is concerned with the study of esotericism, mysticism, and magic in the cosmic sense."

Today, its purpose is in working on the spiritual evolution of humanity by means of development and advancement of the individual being.  This is to be attained by mental and ethical schooling of the personality and complete mastery of esotericism and occultism.  The organisation adopts a system of degrees, ending with the 33rd (similar to Freemasonry).  The lodge further claims it has no political or economic objectives, and propagates ideals of freedom, tolerance and fraternity.




Fraternity of the Hidden Light (FLO) The Fraternity of the Hidden Light (also known as FLO or Fraternitas L.V.X. Occulta) is a magical organisation and 'Aquarian Age' mystery school in the Western Mystery Tradition.  The FLO teaches occult sciences, such as Tarot, Kabbalah, Alchemy, Astrology, and related Arcane Sciences.

The FLO traces its lineage to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.  The Fraternity website (in a section entitled 'History') tells the story of the rise of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn but also of a new Order that was founded by former members of the Thoth-Hermes temple of the Alpha et Omega, in New York.  Though this description does not give names, the events of which it speaks point to and suggest Paul Foster Case's founding of the School of Ageless Wisdom, later called the Builders of the Adytum or B.O.T.A.

The Fraternity of the Hidden Light was founded in the early 1980s CE by Dr Paul Clark, who trained with B.O.T.A.  The Fraternity has lodges on all continents (except Antarctica).




Fraternity of the Inner Light The Fraternity of the Inner Light is a magical society and Western Mystery School founded by Dion Fortune in 1924 CE.  It operates from London and accepts pupils.

In 1922, after a falling-out with Moina Mathers of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and with Moina's consent, Dion Fortune left the Alpha et Omega to form an offshoot organisation, which indirectly brought new members to the said Alpha et Omega.  Fortune's group was later renamed "The Fraternity of the Inner Light", and was, later still, renamed The Society of the Inner Light.

Fortune gave her followers preliminary training by means of correspondence courses, on successful completion of which aspirants were initiated into the so-called Lesser Mysteries, then onto Greater Mysteries.  These lesser mysteries were roughly equivalent to the Outer Order of the Golden Dawn, and the greater mysteries were roughly equivalent to the old Inner Order of the Rosae Rubae et Aureae Crucis (Ruby Rose and Golden Cross, or the RR et AC).

During its early years, the Fraternity of the Inner Light used many unchanged versions of the Golden Dawn initiation rituals which, as Francis King notes, had a "semi-amicable relationship" with the Stella Matutina.  However, alterations were introduced and eventually the ceremonies used bore no resemblance to those of the Golden Dawn, with the exception that they were constructed on the same principles.

N.B. The name Fraternity .... referred to the inner plane group, and the word Society .... referred to the physical plane group and those members currently incarnated.  Thus, the group considered 'Fraternity' was more senior than the 'Society'.  See also The Society of the Inner Light.




Freemasonry The Order of the Free and Accepted Masons is one of the largest global secret fraternal societies, originally stemming from mediaeval stone-crafter guilds, and claiming descent from the builders of King Solomon's Temple.  It was founded on the notion that the architecture of a church (typically King Solomon's Temple) is a metaphor for the architecture of the soul and man's relationship with God.

Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation whose individual members are united by shared ideals of both a moral and metaphysical nature and, in most of its branches, by a constitutional declaration of a belief in a Supreme Being.  Organisationally, Freemasonry is governed on a geographical basis by independent, Sovereign Grand Lodges and Grand Orients which may, or may not be in a state of mutual recognition.

Freemasonry is also an esoteric society in that certain aspects of its internal work are not generally disclosed to the public.  However, in recent years Freemasons have stated that Freemasonry has become less of a secret society and more of a society with secrets, claiming that most of the secrets of Freemasonry were revealed and have been known to the public since as early as the 18th century CE.  For this and other reasons, most modern Freemasons regard the traditional concern over secrecy as a demonstration of their ability to keep a promise and as a substitute for the organisation's concern over the privacy of their own affairs.  The private aspects of Freemasonry deal with elements of ritual and the modes of recognition amongst members within the ritual.

Some say the Freemasons were established in Scotland after several members of the Knights Templar fled there following its disbandment by Pope Clement V.




FUDOFSI See Fédération Universelle des Ordres, Fraternités et Sociétés Initiatiques (FUDOFSI).



FUDOSI See Fédération Universelle des Ordres et Sociétés Initiatiques (FUDOSI).



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