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Earth Earth is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and science.  In Alchemy, Earth was believed to be primarily dry, and secondarily cold, (as per Aristotle). Beyond those classical attributes, the chemical substance Salt, was associated with Earth whose alchemical symbol is a downward-pointing triangle, bisected by a horizontal line.  In astrology, Earth relates to the astrological signs Capricorn, Taurus and Virgo.

Earth as a planetary symbol is depicted as a globe bisected by meridian lines into four quarters.  It was commonly associated with qualities of heaviness, matter and the terrestrial world.  Due to the hero cults, and chthonic1 Underworld deities, the element of Earth is also associated with the sensual aspects of both life and death in later occultism.

The first Greek god was actually a goddess, Gaia, or Mother Earth, who created herself out of primordial chaos.  From her fertile womb all life sprang, and unto Mother Earth all living things must return after their allotted span of life is over.  Gaia, as Mother Nature, personifies the entire ecosystem of Planet Earth.  Mother Nature is always working to achieve and maintain harmony, wholeness and balance within the environment.  She heals, nurtures and supports all life on this planet, and ultimately all life and health depend on Her.  In time, Nature heals all ills.  In Classical Greek and Roman myth, various goddesses represented the Earth, seasons, crops and fertility, including Demeter, Persephone and Ceres.

Earth and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn system of Ceremonial Magic.  Zelator is the elemental grade attributed to Earth; this grade is also attributed to the Kabbalistic sphere Malkuth.  The elemental weapon of Earth is the Pentacle.  Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings.  The archangel of Earth is Uriel, the angel is Phorlakh, the ruler is Kerub, the king is Ghob, and the Earth elementals are called Gnomes.

Earth is considered to be passive and is referred to the lower left point of the Pentagram in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentagram.  Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community. See also Gnomes and Quarters.

1 The Gods of the Underworld were named 'Theoi Khthonioi' or Chthonian Gods by the Greeks.  They were ruled by the grim god Hades and his queen Persephone.  The term 'Chthonic Gods' was also used for the closely related gods of agriculture.

Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica See Ordo Templi Orientis.

Elder Futhark See Runes.

Elegua / Eleggua Elegua / Eleggua (known as Eleguá in Latin America and Spanish-speaking Caribbean islands) is an Orisha, a deity of roads in the religions of Santeria, Umbanda, Quimbanda, and Candomblé.  He is syncretised with Saint Michael, Saint Anthony of Padua, or the Holy Child of Atocha.

In Santeria, he is the Orisha of doorways and crossroads.  These effigies are made of items sacred to Eleggua, with cowries for facial features; they are most commonly placed behind or near doors for protection, or kept on altars to receive offerings made to the Orisha.

Elven Star There is considerable meaning behind the Septagram or seven-pointed star known as the Elven Star or Faerie Star.  For its followers (known as Fae), it represents a belief in fairies, and is used as a band symbol to signify their belief.

Each point of the star has a meaning, and stories about those meanings vary depending upon the storyteller.  Seven has long been a 'magical' or 'lucky' number, which is possibly why so many feel comfortable with the Elven Star if only for its seven points.  There are seven wonders of the ancient world, seven visible colours in a rainbow, seven notes to a musical scale (do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti), seven levels of heaven, and the eternal city is supposedly built on seven hills.

Additionally, there are seven Chakras, or energy centres in the body, and seven days of the week.  Seven represents universal balance.  This is illustrated by the symbol for Earth, a circle with four segments, combined with the Trinity, representing heaven.  These are bound together in harmony, forming a seven-pointed star.  In an Elven Star, this balance is symbolised by three over four, or heaven over earth.

For some, the points represent the seven directions: north, south, east, west, above, below, and within.  For others, it's the seven magical elements: Earth, Air, Fire, Water, life, light, & magic.  Still others say it's inner and outer elements.

Emerald Tablet of Thoth The Emerald Tablet of Thoth, also known as the Smaragdine Tablet is a compact and cryptic Hermetic text.  It was highly regarded by Islamic and European alchemists as the foundation of their art.  Though attributed to the legendary Hellenistic figure Hermes Trismegistus, the text of the Emerald Tablet first appears in a number of early medieval Arabic sources, the oldest of which dates to the late eighth or early ninth century CE.  It was translated into Latin several times in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.  Numerous interpretations and commentaries followed.

Mediaeval and early modern alchemists associated the Emerald Tablet with the creation of the philosophers' stone and the artificial production of gold.  It has also been widely popular with nineteenth and twentieth century occultists and esotericists, among whom the phrase "as above, so below" (a modern paraphrase of the second verse of the Tablet) has become an often-cited motto.

Enneagram / nonogram An enneagram is a nine pointed star composed of three overlapping triangles, whereas a nonogram is any nine-pointed polygon.  In esoteric Kabbalistic doctrine, it represents the sphere of Yesod, the Moon, dreams and illusions.  The enneagram is a well-known emblem of the Baha'i faith, symbolising the value of the word baha, ‘glory’.

Another type of enneagram, a nine pointed glyph, was devised by the esoteric philosopher Gurdjieff, a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapola. The emblem's unusual shape is constructed by mapping the sequence of musical octaves, and has come to represent Gurdjieff's 'Fourth Way Society' and its philosophies.

Gurdjieff's enneagram is likely based on the Kabbalistic tree of life, and accordingly, is said to represent the underlying geometry of the universe.

Enochian Keys / Script Enochian script is a magical language which the philosopher and mathematician, John Dee (1527 - 1608 or 1609 CE), reportedly received from Angelic messengers through the medium Edward Kelley (1555 - 1597) in the late 16th century.  Dee noted in his diaries that the letters represented the order of man's creation.  Although Dee himself referred to the alphabet as 'Adamic', it was eventually named after the Biblical prophet 'Enoch'.

This Script was the basis for a rudimentary theurgical system begun by Dee but never completed.  It eventually became the basis of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's magical system, but was banned by Paul Foster Case (1884 - 1954) of Builders of the Adytum after his expulsion from the Golden Dawn due to his belief in the inherent danger of the system.  There are twenty-one letters in the Enochian alphabet, some of them representing several sounds, including some overlap.  As in Hebrew and other angelic alphabets, the language is written from right to left.

Enochian Watchtowers See Quarters.

Eros In Greek mythology, Eros is the god of love.  His Roman counterpart is Cupid (desire).  Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares, and along with most of his siblings, was a part of group, consisting of winged love gods.  However, sometimes he is also described as one of the primordial gods, but then, he is most often identified with Phanes.

Eros appears in ancient Greek sources under several different guises.  In the earliest sources (the cosmogonies, the earliest philosophers, and texts referring to the mystery religions), he is one of the primordial gods involved in the coming into being of the cosmos.  But in later sources, Eros is represented as the son of Aphrodite, whose mischievous interventions in the affairs of gods and mortals cause bonds of love to form, often illicitly.  Ultimately, in the later satirical poets, he is represented as a blindfolded child, the precursor to the chubby Renaissance Cupid, whereas in early Greek poetry and art, Eros was depicted as an adult male who embodies sexual power, and a profound artist.

Erzulie Dantor See Veves.

Erzulie Freda See Veves.

Estonian Mythology Estonian Mythology is a composite of myths belonging to the Estonian folk heritage and literary mythology.  Information concerning the pre-Christian and mediaeval Estonian mythology is scattered in historical chronicles and travellers' accounts as well as ecclesiastical registers.  Systematic recordings of Estonian folklore started in the 19th century CE.

Pre-Christian Estonian deities included a sky god known as Jumal or Taevataat ('Old man of the sky') in Estonian, corresponding to Jumala in Finnish, and Jumo in Mari.

Ether See Aether.

Ethiopian Cross Ethiopian crosses are symbols of Christianity in Ethiopia and Eritrea.  Their elaborate, stylised design is markedly distinct from the similar European Christian crosses, and are almost always made from elaborate latticework, the intertwined lattice representing everlasting life.  No two crosses are exactly identical in style, the artisans who make them being allowed the freedom to exercise a measure of individual taste and creativity in their choice of shape and pattern.  Crosses may be of the processional type with a socket at the base so they may be mounted on a staff and carried in church ceremonies or hand-held blessing crosses used by priests in benedictions.

European Union (EU) The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28-member states located primarily in Europe.  It has an area of 4,475,757 square kilometres (1,728,099 square miles), and an estimated population of over 510 million.  The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states.  EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries, and regional development.  Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished.  A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 -- it is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency.

For further details visit the official website of the EU at https://europa.eu/european-union/index_en.

Evil Eye The evil eye is a curse thought to be cast by a malevolent glare, which is usually given to a person when they are unaware of it.  Many cultures believe that receiving the evil eye will cause misfortune or injury, so have created talismans to protect against it -- these are also called 'evil eyes'.

The idea expressed by the term causes many different cultures to pursue protective measures against it, the concept and its significance varying widely among those cultures, primarily in Western Asia.  The idea appears several times in Rabbinic literature, and was a widely extended belief among many Mediterranean and Asian tribes and cultures.

Charms and decorations with eye-like symbols known as Nazars, used to repel the evil eye, are a common sight across Armenia, Albania, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Morocco, Greece, the Levant, Afghanistan, Syria, Southern Spain, and Mexico, and have become a popular choice of souvenir with tourists.  See also Nazar.

Eye of Horus / Ra Designed to resemble the eye of a falcon, this symbol is called the 'Eye of Horus' or 'Eye of Ra' and represents the right eye of the Egyptian falcon god Horus.  As the Udjat (utchat) it was associated with the Sun god Ra/Ré.  The mirror image, or left eye, represented the Moon, and the god Tehuti or Thoth.  A very similar concept of the Sun and Moon as eyes appears in many religious traditions, such as the Celtic tale of the 'Hand of Nuada'.

According to legend, the eye was torn from Horus by his murderous uncle Set, and restored by Thoth, the god of magic.  After the restoration, some stories state that Horus made a gift of the eye to Osiris, which allowed this solar deity to rule the Underworld.  The story of this injury is probably an allusion to the phases of the Moon as the eye which is torn out every month.  Together, the eyes represent the complete universe, a concept similar to that of the Yin yang symbol of Taoism.

Spiritually, the right eye reflects solar, masculine energy, as well as reason and mathematics, whereas the left eye reflects fluid, feminine, lunar energy, and rules intuition and magic.  Together, they represent the combined, transcendent power of Horus.

The Eye of Horus was believed to have healing and protective power.  It was used as a protective amulet, and as a medical measuring device, using the mathematical proportions of the eye to determine the proportions of ingredients in preparations for medications.  The Masonic All-seeing Eye, or Eye of Providence symbol found on American money, and our modern 'Rx' pharmaceutical symbol are all descended from the Eye of Horus.

Eye of Providence See All-seeing Eye.

Eyes of the Buddha This symbol is also referred to as the 'Wisdom Eyes of Buddha' (Bodhnath temple eyes).  Often found painted on the Stupas of Tibetan Buddhism, it represents the 'all-seeing eyes of the Buddha', a symbol of the omnipresent compassion of the Bodhisattvas.

The small dot depicted between the eyes represents a third eye, a symbol of spiritual awakening.  The curious squiggle between the eyes is the Sanskrit numeral one, symbolising the unity of all things.

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